Homeostatic Imbalance
1. Relate the causes of arthritis, osteoarthritis, and gout to an intrinsic failure of a system
2. Explain the invasive and noninvasive treatments of skeletal and bone disorders

1. Relate the causes of arthritis, osteoarthritis, and gout to an intrinsic failure of a system

This picture highlights the major joints affected by arthritis.
This picture highlights the major joints affected by arthritis.
Arthritis- a group of conditions involving damage to the joints of the body. Arthritis is the leading c
Rheumatoid arthritis can cause deformations in the natural alignment of bones, shown here in the phalanges.
Rheumatoid arthritis can cause deformations in the natural alignment of bones, shown here in the phalanges.
ause of disability in people older than fifty-five years. There are different forms of arthritis and each has a different cause. Acute forms of arthritis usually result from bacterial invasion and are treated with antibiotics. Although all arthritides deal with pain,the severity depends on the type and location. The most common symptoms for arthritis sufferers are early morning stiffness, tenderness, and locking of the joints during periods of inactivity.


(degenerative joint disease) is the most common form of arthritis and is a result of trauma to the joint, infection of the joint, or age. Emerging evidence suggests that abnormal anatomy might contribute to the early development of osteoarthritis. Current theory holds that normal joint use prompts the release of enzymes that break down articular cartilage. In healthy individuals, this damaged cartilage is eventually replaced, but in people with osteoarthritis, more cartilage is destroyed than replaced. It's specific cause is unknown but osteoarthritis may reflect the cumulative effects of years of compression and abrasion acting at joint surfaces, causing excessive amounts of the cartilage-destroying enzymes to be released. The affected joints may make a crunching noise as they move. This sound, called crepitus, results as the roughened articular surfaces rub together. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic athritis, autoimmune diseases in which the body attacks itself. Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. More information can be found by following this YouTube link
-http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0dUSmaev5b0.external image osteoarthritis.jpg

Sacroiliac Joint Syndrome

Artificial Disc Replacemant

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Gout- (metabolic arthritis) caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint, causing inflammation. There is also an uncommon form of gout caused by the formation of rhomboid crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. This gout is known as pseudogout. The initial attack typically affects one joint, often at the base of the great toe. Gout is far more common in males than in females because males naturally have higher blood levels of uric acid. Untreated gout can be very destructive; the articulating bone ends fuse and immobilize the joint. Fortunately, several drugs that terminate or prevent gout attacks are available.

(all about gout)

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http://www.howcast.com/videos/30016-Signs-and-Symptoms-Of-Gout - Gout Video

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2. Explain the invasive and noninvasive treatments of skeletal and bone disorders
Invasive Treatments include:
  • Core Decompression - a surgical procedure in which the inner layer of bone is removed to reduce pressure, allow for increased blood flow, and slow or stop bone and/or joint destruction.
  • Osteotomy - a surgical procedure to reshape the bone and reduce stress on the affected area.
  • Bone Graft - a surgical procedure in which healthy bone is transplanted from another part of the patient's body into the affected area.
  • Arthroplasty (Total Joint Replacement) - a surgical procedure to remove and replace an arthritic or damaged joint with an artificial joint (called a prosthesis); may be considered only after other treatment options have failed to provide adequate relief from pain and/or disability.
  • Chemotherapy - when cancer is present, this systemic procedure involves the use of drugs to destroy the cancer cells.
  • Surgery - when cancer is present, surgery may include biopsy to diagnose and stage the cancer, and/or a procedure to remove the cancerous tissue or tumor.
  • Amputation - although limb-sparing surgery normally is the goal, sometimes, the extent of the cancer requires that an entire limb be removed, a surgical procedure called amputation.
  • Radiation Therapy - when cancer is present, radiation may be used to kill cancerous cells. This type of treatment may include the following:
    • External Beam Radiation - external beam therapy is delivered externally from a machine directed to the cancer inside the patient. Examples of external beam therapy machines include linear accelerators, cobalt machines, or orthovoltage x-ray machines. The type of machine used will be determined by the radiation oncologist.
      External beam therapy delivers ionizing radiation to the cancer, destroying cancer cells.
    • Internal Radiation - radioactive pellets are implanted in the affected area
    • Local Field Radiation- used to treat metastatic bone disease
      • directed at specific areas of the involved bone(s), with the target being the metastatic lesion and the immediate adjacent tissue. The treatment area may be expanded to cover entire bone segments or multiple bones, depending upon the level of involvement.
      • mostly used for pain relief, however, is often used to avoid future need for radiation of surrounding areas
Noninvasive Treatments include:

Wearing a cast on a broken bone because it is not a surgical procedure where a doctor would have to go into the body.

http://www.webmd.com/video/teen-osteoporosis-screening - Osteoporosis Video

Holistic massage

Full body massage using oils or talcum powder.
The aim is to fulfil your needs and release tension where required.
Massage is beneficial to all age groups and helps to relax, soothe and relieve stress, anxiety and depression.
It's also a way of restoring our body's natural balance, encouraging circulation, breaking down toxins, aiding digestion and improving physical and emotional well being.


Full body massage as a Holistic massage, using a combination of essential oils which are blended to suit your needs and then massaged into your body to ease out any physical or emotional ailments you might have.
Your skin absorbs the healing properties of the oils, helping you regain your sense of well being and equilibrium

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This massage is a specific pressure technique applied to feet and hands where our internal body structure and organs are mirrored.
Following the pressure lines, this non-invasive treatment helps maintain harmony and a healthy balance between our systems,(digestive, endocrine, muscular, neurological, respiratory, reproductive, skeletal, urinary and vascular).
The main aim is to enhance energy flow by breaking down crystals (toxins) encouraging the body to self heal.
Massaging or pressing each area can stimulate the flow of energy, blood, nutrients, and nerve impulses to the corresponding body zone and thereby relieve ailments in that zone

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Japanese acupressure

This is a fully clothed seated massage used by the Japanese, in a special chair, which gives you the feeling of being cradled. No sticky oils required! yay
This technique is precise and works on a number of pressure points in a specific sequence called a kata, using the practitioners own body weight (keeping in mind the comfort of the person being treated).
The areas treated are mainly the upper body, neck head, arms and hands.
The techniques include thumb, palm and elbow pressure and three different types of percussion.
Not for the faint hearted this is an invigorating yet relaxing massage, which will restore your energy levels and give you a new appetite for life.


Indian head massage has been practiced in India as a tradition for centuries. It's part of their grooming life style, transcended from one generation to the other.
This is a fully clothed seated massage and concentrates on upper back, shoulders, neck, head and face. No oils are required.
The massage provides relief from headaches, migraines, hey fever, eye- strain, tension in the neck and shoulder area.
It also aids concentration, stress related symptoms, helps with insomnia, encourages hair growth and promotes a deep sense of peace and rebalances your energy flow.

Reiki healing

Reiki, pronounced Ray Key, essentially means universal energy.
This form of healing originates from Japan and was developed by Mikao Usui in the 1920's.
It's an intuitive form of healing through which the human body is made healthy and peace of mind and joy of life, are increased, as Mr. Usui said himself.
This is a non-invasive and fully clothed treatment, where you lay down on your back and are covered with a towel.
The practitioner then simply places her/his hands on or near the body in a specific order or where intuition guides her/him.

external image reiki.jpg
By channeling the energy through the hands, it flows in response to the needs of the person receiving it, allowing them to heal.
Reiki works on both physical and emotional levels, re-energising and restoring the whole being.
No belief system is required to receive Reiki, as it is not a religion, nor a new age practice.
Whilst receiving the treatment you usually feel a deep sense of tranquility, warmth and a tingling sensation, some people even get cold shivers.
Each person has different needs, so your experience will be completely individual.
The main objective is that you'll come away feeling lighter, refreshed, positive and with a new sense of confidence.

YouTube video of Bone Graft Surgery--http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=falVDtTqqXg&feature=PlayList&p=4223F84479ED1740&playnext=1&index=4
Example of Invasive Treatment for a Skeletal Disorder (Scoliosis in this case):http://icyou.com/topics/medical-fields/muscular-skeletal/posterior-spinal-instrumentation-and-fusion